The evolution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is closely linked, on the one hand to their uses and appropriations by human actors, on the other hand to the functional scope they cover and to the technical performance they achieve within organisations. But this three-dimensional vision is relatively recent. While apprehending the contributions of the evolution of ICT from several angles,
Introduction of Information & Communication Technologies
The field of digital technology is a cross-cutting field, located at the crossroads of several disciplines: information and communication sciences, management sciences, human and social sciences and computer science. We talk about Information Technology (IT) or Information and Communication Technology (ICT) . Talking about ICT here reduces the risk of confusion, while emphasising the info-communicational aspect.
How Increased Development of ICT?
But this would not have been possible without the appropriation of technological tools by users whose perception of ICT has evolved over the years, also leading to profound changes in use. Over time and with the diversity of technologies, this scope has expanded to personal domains. Along with this observation, we consider the study of digital uses through three dimensions: technological, functional and human.
What is the Development of Technological Tools?
The objective of our work is therefore to focus first on the evolution of ICTs through uses, then secondly on the fact that the human dimension plays a primordial role in the study of uses, which necessarily lead to a change in ICT. We will therefore also focus on this new dimension of apprehension of ICT. Indeed, although all the actors talk about it, few are those who adopt the best practices related to the latter, both in terms of usage processes and in terms of the design and development of technological too
From the Evolution of ICT
Several authors have attempted to identify the main trends in ICT research. In the same perspective, Laudon et al. (2006) qualify these approaches as technical and behavioural, which they complete with a third transversal level: the socio-technical approach.
Among the definitions that exist in the literature, we retain the one proposed by Laudon for whom “ an organisation is a more or less stable and formal social structure, which draws resources from the environment and then transforms capital and labour into products and services by means of a production process “.
The Introduction of Technologies Tools
Moreover, in an organisational context, the notion of use implies an interactional dynamic mobilising actors and activities of manipulation and exploitation of info-communication devices . Use constitutes ” a stabilised use of an object, a tool, to obtain an effect. The latter deals with languages for representing information and formulating responses.
This approach is found in almost all of the applications developed in the, to which we associate the failure of digital projects due to the lack of user involvement .Initially, the introduction of technological tools was characterised by the automation of organisational tasks to optimise work processes and increase productivity: it is essentially the processing of information and the automation of industrial processes. The time has not yet come to questioning the needs of users,
Internet & Web Technologies
This paradigm is widely used in the study of the sociology of uses. In this regard, technological innovations cover the operational and decision-making aspects that relate to structured and unstructured information.
It is possible to share and have technological resources on demand; furthermore, uses are developing, becoming established and changing according to developments in ICT.
This paradigm shift materialises at both individual and collective levels. On the other hand, digital devices affect our relationships with the constituent actors of the public space.